!-- Global site tag (gtag.js) - Google Analytics --> C++ operators, keywords and tokens - programmingworld

Breaking

C++ operators, keywords and tokens



                           C++

The C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at AT&T Bell laboratories. He found ‘C’ lacking for simulations and decided to extend the language by adding features form his favorite language, Simula 67.  Simula 67 was the earliest object-oriented languages. Bjarne Stroustrup called it “C with classes” originally. The name C++ (pronounced C++) was coined by Rick Mascitti where “++” is the C increment operator.

C++ Character Set:-

It is a set of valid characters. A character set represents any digit, letter, or any other sign.

TOKENS (Lexical units)

Individual words and punctuation marks are called token or lexical units or lexical element. C++ has the following tokens :

  •   Keywords
  •   Identifiers
  •   Literals
  •   Punctuators
  •   Operators
Keyword:-

The original C++ contains the following keyword:-

example :- continue, goto, new, float, int, char, try, auto, default, for, operator, delete, typedef, friend etc.

Identifier:-

“It is long sequence of letters and digits. Upper and lower case letters are different. All characters are significant.

The following are some valid identifier:-

               Myfile                       Dated_7_77                    Z2T0Z9
               MYFILE                      _DS                              _HJI3_JK
               _CHK                         FILE13

The following are some invalid identifiers:-

     DATA-REC                   contain special character –(other than A-Z,a-z, and _ )
     2CLCT                             starting with a digit
     Break                              reserved keyword
     My.file                            contain special character dot (.)

Literals:-

Literals are data items which never change their value when a is program run.

C++ allows several kinds of literals:-

  •       bool literal
  •       integer-constant
  •       character-constant
  •       floating constant
  •       String-literal
 Integer-constants:-  

An integer constant must have at least one digit and must have not contained any decimal point. It may contain either + or – sign.

C++ allows three type of integer constant:-

·      Decimal (base 10)
·      Octal (base 8)
·      Hexadecimal (base 16)

Floating constants:- 

 Real constants are numbers having factorials parts. This may be written in one of the two forms called fractional form or the exponent form.

Punctuators:- 

The following character are used as punctuators (also known as separators) is C++ :
           [     ]       (      )         {      }   ,  ;   :     *    ...    =    #


Unary operators:-


&
Address operator
*
Indirection operator
+
Unary plus
-
Unary minus
~
Bitwise complement
++
Increment operator
--
Decrement operator
!
Logical negation
  

Binary Operator:-

 Following are some binary operators:
                                  
                                 Arithmetic Operators 

It provides operators for five basic arithmetic calculation: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and remainder which are +, -, *, /, and % respectively.
 
+
Addition
-
Subtraction
*
Multiplication
/
Division
%
Remainder/Modulus

                                
                                   Shift Operators  
<< 
Shift left
>> 
Shift right

                                 
                                   Bitwise operators
&
Bitwise AND
^
Bitwise exclusive OR (XOR)
|
Bitwise OR
                                   

                                   Logical operators 
This section talks about logical operators that refer to the ways these relationships can be connected.
&&
Logical AND
||
Logical OR

                              
                                  Assignment operator 

=
Assignment
/=
Assign quotient
+=
Assign sum
<<=
Assign left  shift
&=
Assign bitwise AND
*=
Assign product
%=
Assign remainder
-=
Assign difference
>>=
Assign right shift
^=
Assign bitwise XOR
                         

                                   Relational operators

 The relationship operators determine the relation among different operand. The six relational operators are:

.Less than
Greater than
<=
Less than or equal to
>=
Greater than or equal to
==
Equal to
!=
Not equal to

                           
                                 Class member operator
::
Scope access /resolution
.*
Deference pointer to class member
-->*
Deference pointer to class member